Epinephrine must be stored and handled carefully because it presents a toxicological hazard. Accidental exposure to epinephrine may result in anxiety, headache, nausea, tremors, heart attack, pulmonary edema, or renal failure. In medical applications, particularly in the treatment of trauma, epinephrine dosage must be controlled to prevent harmful side effects, particularly tissue damage. Epinephrine may also be damaging to the unborn, causing reproductive difficulties or birth defects. For this reason, exposure should be avoided by pregnant women.